Just finished the LMS class on tcp/ip, ports and firewalls. In the firewall section, the class primarily focused on getting ufw on to Linode. When I started looking around the desktop on Linux Mint, it seems there is the Gufw to complement ufw, which is pre-installed. I found that the rules in the Gufw seem to be pretty basic: allow outgoing, deny incoming. Apparently, things can be personalized wih Gufw to some degree, but the basic rule pretty much seems to shut down the ports to incoming. I read up on ufw and how to use the command line to create your own security features, but it seems the Gufw has pretty much created the essential security feature for the desktop unless one would want to open some ports to incoming for some reason. So, my question is: am I understanding this? Or is it really that simple?
Yes, you are understanding it correctly. With UFW (or GUFW for the graphical version of it), it is that simple indeed. All you have to do there is simply utilize the Rules section that you can manually set up.